All patients with diabetes mellitus should measure their blood glucose concentrations to help maintain safe, target-driven glucose control.If you have diabetes, you have an important role in your own medical care, and testing your blood sugar is an opportunity for you to take control of your health.

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG)
It is recommended in patients with Type 1 diabetes who take mealtime insulin. SMBG testing is usually done before meals to adjust insulin doses based on meal size, meal content and activity levels. This helps in avoiding hypoglycemic episodes. SMBG helps patients with Type 2 diabetes also although their glucose levels are characteristically more stable

How to Perform Blood Sugar Testing At Home :
The following steps include general guidelines for testing blood sugar levels; you should get specific details for your blood glucose monitors from the package insert or your healthcare provider. Never share blood glucose monitoring equipment or finger stick lancing devices. Sharing of this equipment could result in transmission of infection, such as hepatitis B.
  • Wash hands with soap and warm water. Dry hands.
  • Prepare the lancing device by inserting a fresh lancet. Lancets that are used more than once are not as sharp as a new lancet, and can cause more pain and injury to the skin.
  • Prepare the blood glucose meter and test strip by following the instructions on the glucose meter.
  • Use the lancing device to obtain a small drop of blood from your fingertip . If you have difficulty getting a good drop of blood from the fingertip, try rinsing your fingers with warm water, shaking the hand below the waist, or squeezing (“milking”) the fingertip.
  • Apply the blood drop to the test strip in the blood glucose meter. The results will be displayed on the meter after several seconds.
  • Dispose of the used lancet in a puncture-resistant sharps container.
What are the diagnostics tests for diabetes?
If your family history, weight or lifestyle predisposes to get diabetes, you should get tested annually to know the range of sugar levels. These are the tests carried out in the laboratory.
Glycated Hemoglobin (HBA1C) Test
Hemoglobin A1C is a blood test that shows what your average blood sugar level has been for the past 3 months. Doctors use this test:
  • To see whether a person has diabetes
  • To see whether diabetes treatment is working the right way
Other names for hemoglobin A1C are "glycatedhemoglobin," "HbA1C," or just "A1C."

Know Your A1C Numbers :
  • When checking for diabetes – If you had an A1C test to see if you have diabetes, your A1C should be 6 or less.
    • If your A1C is 6.5 or higher, it probably means you have diabetes, but you should have the test done again to be sure.
    • If your A1C is between 5.7 and 6.4, you are at risk for getting diabetes. You should probably start doing things that can help prevent diabetes. For example, you should become more active and lose weight (if you are overweight).
  • When checking how treatment is working – If you already know you have diabetes, and you had an A1C test to see how well controlled your blood sugar is,your A1C should probably be 7 or less. But you need to check with your doctor on what your level should be. Not everyone with diabetes is the same.
How often should I have an A1C Test? :
That depends on whether you have diabetes and on what your last A1C test showed.
  • If you had an A1C test to check for diabetes and your A1C was less than 5.7 (meaning you do NOT have diabetes), you should have A1C tests done every 3 years.
  • If you had an A1C test to check for diabetes and your A1C was between 5.7 and 6.4 (meaning you do not have diabetes but are at risk for it), you should have A1C tests done every year.
  • If you do have diabetes and your blood sugar is well controlled, you should have A1C tests every 6 months.
  • If you have diabetes and you recently changed treatment plans or you are having trouble controlling your blood sugar, you should have A1C tests every 3 months.
Keeping A1C numbers close to normal helps keep people from getting:
  • Diabetic retinopathy, an eye disease that can cause blindness
  • Nerve damage caused by diabetes (also called neuropathy)
  • Kidney disease
For people with newly diagnosed diabetes, keeping the A1C close to normal might also prevent heart attacks and strokes in the future.

A1C Level And Average Blood Sugar

If your A1C level is (percent) Your blood sugar is measured in millimoles/liter (mmol/L):
5 5.4
6 7
7 8.6
8 10.2
9 11.8
10 13.3
11 15
12 16.5
13 18.1
14 19.7
Fasting Blood Sugar Test
It measures the fasting blood sugar level when you have observed abstinence from food for a period of 8-10 hours.

  • Normal : 70-130 mg/dl
  • Prediabetic :100-125 mg/dl
  • Diabetic : ≥ 126 mg/dl
Random Blood Sugar Test
It measures the blood sugar level at any time of the day/night

  • Normal : <180 mg/dl
  • Prediabetic : 140 -199 mg/dl
  • Diabetic : ≥ 200 mg/dl
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
This test involves drinking a special glucose solution (usually orange or cola flavored). Your blood sugar level is tested before you drink the solution, and then again one and two hours after drinking it.

  • Normal : < 140 mg/dl
  • Prediabetic : 140 -199 mg/dl
  • Diabetic : ≥ 200 mg/dl